Conventional Lower (16)

Waist Markers

Note that the waist markers are the key markers in modeling the pelvis bone, which is the major segment governing the other subsequent Skeleton segments.

Lower Extremity Markers

The joint center of the knee and the ankle is modeled at the midpoint of the lateral and medial joint markers (FLE/FME and FAL/TAM). Assuming that center of the femoral head aligns with the center of the acetabulum, its virtual location is modeled using markers on the pelvis segment (posterior and anterior iliac spine markers). The lower extremity segments are modeled along these three virtual locations.

Foot Markers


  1. Leardini, A., Biagi, F., Merlo, A., Belvedere, C., Benedetti, M.G., 2011. Multi-segment trunk kinematics during locomotion and elementary exercises. Clin. Biomech. 26, 562-571.

  2. Leardini, A., Sawacha, Z., Paolini, G., Ingrosso, S., Nativo, R., Benedetti, M.G., 2007. A new anatomically based protocol for gait analysis in children. Gait Posture 26. 560-571.