Conventional Lower (16)

Waist Markers

LabelsRelated SegmentAnatomical LocationAdditional Description

Pelvis

Left Iliac Anterior Spine Right Iliac Anterior Spine

Place the marker on the protruding bones located on the left and right side of the pelvis front.

Pelvis

Left Iliac Posterior Spine Right Iliac Posterior Spine

Place each marker on the two dimples which can be palpated near the spine right above the hips.

Note that the waist markers are the key markers in modeling the pelvis bone, which is the major segment governing the other subsequent Skeleton segments.

Lower Extremity Markers

LabelsRelated SegmentAnatomical LocationPlacement Description

Upper Leg

Left Femur Lateral Epicondyle Right Femur Lateral Epicondyle

Place the marker on the lateral prominence of the knee joint axis. More specifically, the marker should be placed on the femur epicondyle. You may need to ask the subject to flex and extend the knee few times to locate the axis.

LTH RTH

Upper Leg

Left Thigh Right Thigh

Place the markers at the front center of the thigh near the midline. This marker is placed for distinguishing left and right side of the Skeleton. For best results, slightly offset the height of right and left marker to introduce an asymmetry.

LSK RSK

Upper Leg

Left Superior Knee Right Superior Knee

Place the markers on the shin bone near the midline of the lower leg. This marker is placed for distinguishing left and right side of the Skeleton. For best results, slightly offset the height of right and left marker to introduce an asymmetry.

Lower Leg

Left Tibial Tubercle Right Tibial Tubercle

Place the marker about 2-3 cm below the knee cap bone. This marker should be placed on the most anterior point of the tibial tuberosity.

The joint center of the knee and the ankle is modeled at the midpoint of the lateral and medial joint markers (FLE/FME and FAL/TAM). Assuming that center of the femoral head aligns with the center of the acetabulum, its virtual location is modeled using markers on the pelvis segment (posterior and anterior iliac spine markers). The lower extremity segments are modeled along these three virtual locations.

Foot Markers

LabelsRelated SegmentAnatomical LocationPlacement Description

Lower Leg/Foot

Left Fibula Ankle Lateral Right Fibula Ankle Lateral

Place the maker on the lateral side of the ankle axis; on the lateral prominence of the lateral malleolus bone.

Foot

Left Foot Second Metatarsal Right Foot Second Metatarsal

Place the marker on the dorsal aspect of the second metatarsal bone.

Foot

Left Foot Calcaneus Right Foot Calcaneus

Place the marker on center of the heel, where the Achilles tendon attaches to the calcneous bone.

References

  1. Leardini, A., Biagi, F., Merlo, A., Belvedere, C., Benedetti, M.G., 2011. Multi-segment trunk kinematics during locomotion and elementary exercises. Clin. Biomech. 26, 562-571.

  2. Leardini, A., Sawacha, Z., Paolini, G., Ingrosso, S., Nativo, R., Benedetti, M.G., 2007. A new anatomically based protocol for gait analysis in children. Gait Posture 26. 560-571.

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